Science & Nature (244)

Fauna of New Zealand 62 : Trechini

ISBN: 9780478347159

Author: J Ian Townsend    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

Trechini beetles



Trechini are small- to medium-sized ground beetles that require high humidity. Almost half the known New Zealand trech...


Trechini beetles



Trechini are small- to medium-sized ground beetles that require high humidity. Almost half the known New Zealand trechine species are found in caves, which provide an environment close to 100% humidity, and these are highly modified for an underground life. Insects that are restricted to caves have had an interesting history as they have had to cope with major geological changes to the landscape over the last few million years. Surface-dwelling species also require high humidity and are usually found along streamsides or in beach gravel below the high water mark.



There are about 2500 species in the tribe Trechini worldwide. Currently there are 33 species of trechines known from New Zealand, all of which are endemic except one. Amongst New Zealand’s relatively few species are some lineages that are apparently not present in Australia, Tasmania, or South America, giving rise to some interesting biogeographic questions.



Although the number of New Zealand’s trechine species is small on a world scale, they are a special part of our biota because they are one of our most diverse groups of cave insects, they occupy unusual habitats, and they show extreme adaptations to the hostile environments in which they live.



In this Fauna New Zealand Carabidae of the tribe Trechini are revised and relationships to the world fauna are discussed. Their survival during changing geological episodes is discussed.


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Pages: 101


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$49.50
Fauna of New Zealand 7 : Cryptostigmata

ISBN: 9780477067621

Author: M Luxton    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

he Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


he Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


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Pages: 106


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$29.95
Fauna of New Zealand 4 : Eriophyoidea

ISBN: 9780477067454

Author: D Manson    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


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Pages: 142


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$29.95
Fauna of New Zealand 24 : Therevidae

ISBN: 9780477026321

Author: L Lyneborg    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


Pages: 140


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$34.95
Fauna of New Zealand 13 : Encyrtidae

ISBN: 9780477025171

Author: J Noyes    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


The Fauna of New Zealand series has been widely acclaimed for its role in presenting New Zealand's unique invertebrate fauna to the world.


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Pages: 188


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$44.95
Fauna of New Zealand 70 : Periegopidae

ISBN: 9780478347401

Author: C Vink    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

Periegopid spiders



There are only three species known in the family Periegopidae and all are in one genus, Periegops. These rare spider...


Periegopid spiders



There are only three species known in the family Periegopidae and all are in one genus, Periegops. These rare spiders have only ever been found in relict forests at limited locations in New Zealand (Banks Peninsula, Riccarton Bush, the Aldermen Islands, and East Cape) and in Queensland, Australia.



Periegopids are only found in forest with a deep leaf litter layer and well-drained soil. They do not build a web, but hunt on the forest floor. Periegopids can be most readily distinguished from other spiders found in New Zealand by having six eyes arranged in three widely spaced diads.



Two species of Periegopidae, both in the genus Periegops Simon 1893, are found in New Zealand; P. suterii (Urquhart, 1892) and a newly described species. In this new Fauna of New Zealand contribution the genus and both species are described or redescribed, with information on synonymy, type data, material examined, and geographical distribution. Habitus images of adults, illustrations of important morphological features, and distribution maps are provided, and a key is given. A molecular phylogenetic analysis examining the relationships between eight specimens of P. suterii and three specimens of the new species using COI data is presented


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Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$29.00
Fauna of New Zealand 68 : Simuliidae

ISBN: 9780478347340

Author: Douglas Craig    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

Black flies, sandflies, te namu



Known in New Zealand as ‘sandflies’ or ‘te namu’ and elsewhere in the world mainly as ‘black ...


Black flies, sandflies, te namu



Known in New Zealand as ‘sandflies’ or ‘te namu’ and elsewhere in the world mainly as ‘black flies’, Simuliidae are iconic New Zealand insects. Virtually every New Zealander has been bitten by female simuliids, as have many overseas tourists. Worldwide, simuliids are notorious for their disease transmission, in particular river blindness in Africa and South America. New Zealand simuliids are not known to transmit any diseases to humans, but many people react badly to bites of species to which they have no previous exposure.



Simuliids of New Zealand belong to the genus Austrosimulium known only from New Zealand, Tasmania, and mainland Australia. Simuliid larvae require running water and in New Zealand are more or less ubiquitous, occurring in almost all running water habitats. There are 19 species of Austrosimulium in New Zealand, but only three species found here are serious biters of humans and it is only the females that bite; they bite to get the nutrients to produce eggs. In this Fauna keys are provided for larvae, pupae, adults, and ecological habitats. All known stages are described and illustrated for each species, together with information on their bionomics and biogeography. There are 72 full page colour plates and a total of 540 figures. Molecular analysis indicated that New Zealand Austrosimulium arrived by dispersal about 5 million years ago.



Elsewhere in the world simuliids in the genus Austrosimulium may be considered to feed on birds or mammals, depending on the presence or absence of a tooth on the tarsal claw. New Zealand simuliids are opportunistic and females will generally take blood meals from whatever is available, though there is one species that attacks Fiordland crested penguins while studiously avoiding humans.



What did New Zealand simuliids feed on before humans arrived? Of little doubt it would be on the vast number of birds, now greatly depleted, and probably also the large numbers of seals present then. Indeed, searching along beaches for a blood meal from either birds or seals still appears inherent behaviour of New Zealand adult female simuliids — and probably the reason for their name ‘sandflies’.


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Pages: 336


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$95.00
Fauna of New Zealand 67 : Peloridiidae

ISBN: 9780478347302

Author: M-C Larivière    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

The family Peloridiidae or moss bugs are primitive members of the insect order Hemiptera. Often called ‘living fossils’, peloridiids belong to the suborder ...


The family Peloridiidae or moss bugs are primitive members of the insect order Hemiptera. Often called ‘living fossils’, peloridiids belong to the suborder Coleorrhyncha and live in the wet moss of temperate and subantarctic rainforests. Seventeen genera and 36 species are known from Chile, Argentina, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and eastern Australia.



New Zealand can be regarded as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’ for these insects: the three genera and 13 New Zealand species are endemic, meaning they do not occur anywhere else. New Zealand has the most diversified fauna at the species level, with 36% of all world species in this group of special significance for the Southern Hemisphere, with evolutionary roots dating back to the break-up of Gondwana. Moss bugs have hardened forewings and all New Zealand species lack hind wings, so are flightless, which makes them an ideal model group to test Gondwanan biogeographic hypotheses.



This Fauna offers a concise review of this ‘iconic’ Gondwanan group, reconciling results published by Burckhardt (2009) and Burckhardt et al. (2011) with a study of specimens contained in New Zealand entomological collections and museums. This faunal review aims to provide an inventory of New Zealand taxa, a concise treatment of their taxonomy, identification keys to genera and species, and a summary of information available on species distribution and biology.


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Pages: 78


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$48.00
Fauna of New Zealand 66 : Diaspididae

ISBN: 9780478347265

Author: R Henderson    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

The armoured scale insect family Diaspididae is one of ten families of plant-sucking scale insects present in New Zealand, and this family has three unique feat...


The armoured scale insect family Diaspididae is one of ten families of plant-sucking scale insects present in New Zealand, and this family has three unique features. The first feature is that the stomach of armoured scale insects is not directly connected to the hind gut, so they do not produce honeydew; the second is their armour or scale cover, in which they incorporate the cast skins of their juvenile moults; and the third feature is the fused segments of the posterior part of the abdomen called the pygidium.



In this Fauna the adult females of all 49 species of Diaspididae known from New Zealand, except the Leucaspidini, are described and illustrated. Four new genera and seven new species are described, and nomenclatural changes are noted. The 1st- and 2nd-instar nymphs of all the endemic species and of four Australian species that are of systematic interest are also described and illustrated. Keys to allow separation of adult females of all genera and species are included.



Additional features of this Fauna include: a brief review of earlier work on the Diaspididae in New Zealand; discussion of the biology and life cycle, scale cover formation, natural enemies, distribution, host plant associations including galls, and economic importance; a guide to methods for slide-mounting Diaspididae as used in the NZ Arthropod Collection.


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Pages: 275


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$89.00
Fauna of New Zealand 65 : Izatha

ISBN: 9780478347241

Author: Robert Hoare    Publisher: Manaaki Whenua Press

Lichen Tuft Moths



The genus Izatha only occurs in New Zealand. It is one of our special and diverse groups of endemic moths, with 40 sp...


Lichen Tuft Moths



The genus Izatha only occurs in New Zealand. It is one of our special and diverse groups of endemic moths, with 40 species now recognized. Most of them are beautifully camouflaged when resting on the trunks of our forest trees so that they resemble bark or lichen, and they have been popularly named ‘lichen tuft moths’ as a result. Some Izatha species are apparently rare and may be in need of special conservation.



Caterpillars of Izatha almost all tunnel in dead wood, where they probably digest the fungal element; others appear to feed on bracket fungi or lichens. Izatha species thus play an essential role as decomposers, responsible for recycling the nutrients in New Zealand’s forests and shrublands.



Despite their interesting form and ecological significance, the study of these moths has been neglected and 15 new species are described in this volume, which represents an increase of 60% over the 25 previously known.



This Fauna covers the classification, distribution, ecology and biology of Izatha. It includes information about new species, keys, sexual selection and sexual antagonism. The adults of all species are described and illustrated in colour.


Pages: 201


Publication Date: 04-03-2014


$75.00
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